• HOW DO KIDNEY WORK?
• WHAT IS HEMODIALYSIS?
• HOW IS HEMODIALYSIS MADE?
• HOW DOES PERITONEAL DIALYSIS WORK?
• CONTINUOUS CYCLICAL PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
• INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
• CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
We have two kidneys that have red-dark color, form of beans grain and measure about 12 cm in an adult person. They are situated in the posterior part of abdomne one of each side of the column, where they are protected by the last finish ribs.
The function of the kidneys is to filter the blood, removing the produced toxic trashes in fabrics of the body and also salts and other substances that are present in excessive amounts. The water excess in the body and also the salt are eliminated by the kidneys in urine way. It is kept thus, the adequate rocking of liquids in the organism preventing itself of the swell.
The kidneys also produce responsible hormones which the control the arterial pressure and the production and realeasing of red globule by ossea marrow, the one that prevents the annemia.
The Blood arrives at the kidneys through the renals arteries that, in the inward of the kidneys, divide in lesser vases each time until they form fine vases that constitute the glomerulos. In each kidney millions of glomerulos exist are the true filters of blood. When the blood passes through these small vases, the excess liquids and its salts are eliminated and the urine formation begins, after crossing some tubes and suffering many hashings, it will be eliminated for a common tube, the ureter and then to the bladder and uretra.
Approximately two a thousand liters of blood pass for the kidneys every day, being produced to the end 1.2 liters of urine per day .If our kidneys have its preserved function, the more liquid we take, the more urine will be produced.
Hemodialysis is a procedure that filters the blood. Through hemodialysis substances are removed from the blood and when in excess they bring damages to the body, as the urea, potassium sodium and water.
The hemodialysis is made with the aid of a dialisator (hair or filter). The dialisator is formed by a set of small tubes. During dialysis , part of the blood is removed, passes through the arterial string of the dialisat or where the blood is filtered and returns to the patient through the venous string. Currently, it has had a great progress in relationship to the security and the effectiveness of the dialysis machines , becoming the treatment as safe as enough. There are alarms that indicate any alteration that occurs in the system (detectors of bubbles, alteration of temperature and the stream of the blood, etc.)
Do not forget : the machine of dialysis is a friend of yours. Ask your doctor or assistant how the machine works, where you dialyses or so on. Therefore how much bigger it will be its knowledge, better greater will be its confidence and the results of the treatment.
The peritoneal membrane has many blood vases. The blood that circulates in the peritoneal membrane, as well as all body blood is with excess of potassium, urea and other substances that must be eliminated. In the peritoneal dialysis, a special liquid, called solution for dialysis, enters in the abdomen by means of a soft tube (to catheter).
The toxic substances will pass, little by little , through the walls of the blood vases of the peritoneal membrane for the solution of dialysis . After some hours, the solution is drained from the abdomen and then continues to fill the abdomen with a new solution of dialysis, so that the purification process is repeated. Some days before the first dialysis, the catheter which allows the entrance and the exit of the dialysis solution from the abdominal part is placed through a small surgery by a surgeon. The catheter is permanently installed .
The continuous cyclical peritoneal dialysis is similar to CAPD , however in the catheter must be connected to the machine, that fills the abdomen and drains the solution of the dialysis automatically This method is usually done during the night, while the patient sleeps, allowing bigger freedom to the patient during the day.
It is a still little used method in Brazil, therefore the machine must be bought or be rented by the patient to be used at home , increasing its treatment cost.
It is also known as DPI, it can make use of the same type of machine in the CAPD for the infusion and draining of the solution of dialysis. He DPI is usually made in hospital, so far this method is a treatment option for patients who cannot make any other forms of dialysis.
The Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is also known as CAPD or DPAC, which is the most common way of peritoneal dialysis, and especially indicated for older patients, children or those for whom the hemodialysis is not convenient or possible. This type of dialysis does not require machine. It is generally done at home ,in a clean and illuminated place.
The patient himself can make the infusion and the withdrawal (draining) of the dialysis solution in the abdomen or can be assisted by one other person who must be trained to make the solution bag changes. The blood during is purified all the time during CAPD.
The dialysis solution goes from a plastic bag until the abdominal catheter and stays there for some hours. The solution then is drained and a new solution comes back to filll the abdomen, rebeginning the debugging process.
Do not forget: a very important factor for a good result of this dialysis is the patient training or whoever is with him/her , therefore each moment of dialysis solution bags change must be carefully executed trying to prevent infections.